Variable Generation Integration Library

On this page can be found various reports on efforts to characterize the impacts of wind and solar generation on power system operations as well as integration of these energy sources. In an effort to try and house as much relevant information as possible on this page, please feel free to send suggestions to on reports and other items that should be posted here. All items here are in the public domain.

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Click here to learn more about the Operating Impacts Project organized and conducted by the Utility Wind Integration Group

Wind Integration State of the Art Summary

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Download the UWIG publication Utility Wind Integration State of the Art

National Conference of State Legislatures Wind Integration Primer

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Download the NCSL publication Integrating Wind Power Into the Electric Grid - Perspectives for Policymakers

EPRI Wind Integration Impacts Summary

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Download the EPRI report Impacts of Wind Generation Integration


pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Download the article "Forecasting the Wind to Reach Significant Penetration Levels of Wind Energy," Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, September 2011.

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Download the paper "Utility Wind Integration and Operating Impact State of the Art," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 22, No. 3, August 2007  - Posted with Permission

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Download the paper "Best Practices in Grid Integration of Variable Wind Power: Summary of Recent US Case Study Results and Mitigation Measures," presented at the EWEC '07 Conference in Milan, Italy in May 2007

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Download the paper "State of the Art of Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power, Summary of IEA Wind Collaboration," presented at the EWEC '07 Conference in Milan, Italy in May 2007

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Download the paper "Grid Impacts of Wind Power Variability: Recent Assessments from a Variety of Utilities in the United States," presented at the 2006 European Wind Energy Conference (EWEC)

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Download the paper "Wind Power Impacts on Electric Power System Operating Costs, Summary and Perspective on Work Done to Date" presented at the Global WindPower Conference and Exhibition, March 29-31, 2004 (Adobe Acrobat file)

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Download the paper "Grid Impacts of Wind Power: A Summary of Recent Studies in the United States," presented at the European Wind Energy Conference (EWEC) in June 2003

Summaries of International Studies and Experience

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets - Best Practices from International Experience

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Strategies and Decision Support Systems for Integrating Variable Energy Resources in Control Centers for Reliable Grid Operations, December 2011

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) IEA Task 25 - Design & Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power - Final Report, July 2009

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) IEA Task 25 - Design & Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power State-of-the-Art Report, 2007

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) International Energy Agency Report on Management Options and Strategies for Variability of Wind Power and Other Renewables, June 2005

NERC Integration of Variable Generation Task Force Report

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Executive Summary

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Report

NERC IVGTF Special Reports

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Variable Generation Power Forecasting for Operations

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Standard Models for Variable Generation

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Flexibility Requirements and Potential Metrics for Variable Generation: Implications for System Planning Studies

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Potential Reliability Impacts of Emerging Flexible Resources

U.S. Regional and State Studies

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Arizona Public Service Wind Integration Cost Impact Study, September 2007

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Avista Corporation Wind Integration Study, March 2007

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) California ISO Study of Integration of Renewable Resources at a 20% RPS

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) California ISO Final Report, Integration of Renewable Resources, November 2007

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program Intermittency Analysis Project Final Report, July 2007

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) California ISO Frequency Response Study

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Xcel/Public Service Company of Colorado Wind Integration Study

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Wind Induced Coal Plant Cycling Costs and the Implications of Wind Curtailment for Public Service Company of Colorado

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study, January 2010

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Oahu Wind Integration Study

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Midwest ISO Energy Storage Study Phase 1 Report

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Minnesota Public Utilities Commission Statewide Wind Integration Study, November 2006

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Xcel Energy/Minnesota Department of Commerce Wind Integration Study, September 2004

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Minnesota Department of Commerce/Great River Energy Dispersed Renewable Generation Study

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Northwestern Energy Montana Wind Integration Study

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Nebraska Power Association Statewide Wind Integration Study

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) ISO New England Report Technical Requirements for Wind Generation Interconnection and Integration

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) New England Wind Integration Study

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) NYISO 2010 Wind Generation Study

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) NYISO/NYSERDA New York State Wind Study, 2003

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Northwest Wind Integration Action Plan - published by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council, March 2007

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Portland General Electric Wind Integration Study

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) SPP Wind Integration Study, January 2010

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) DOE Report: Integrating Southwest Power Pool Wind Energy into Southeast Electricity Markets

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Texas Study Analysis of Wind Generation Impact on ERCOT Ancillary Services Requirements; GE Energy, March 2008

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) ERCOT CREZ Reactive Power Compensation Study, December 2010

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) We Energies Wind Impacts Project final report, March 2003

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Western Governors Association Report - Meeting Renewable Energy Targets in the West at Least Cost: The Integration Challenge

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, May 2010

Canadian Studies

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Alberta Electric System Operator Wind Integration Study, November 2005

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Alberta Electric System Operator Wind Power Forecasting Pilot Project

Additional information on this project can be found on the AESO web site

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Maritime Provinces Wind Power Integration Study, April 2007

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Large Scale Wind Power in New Brunswick, August 2008

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Analysis of the Impacts of Large-Scale Wind Generation on the Ontario Electricity System, April 2005

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Ontario Wind Integration Study, October 2006

European Studies

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) TradeWind Report: Integrating Wind: Developing Europe's Power Market for the Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) European Wind Energy Association Report on Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy in the European Power Supply - December 2005

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Bart Ummels PhD Thesis on Wind Integration in the Dutch Power System

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Integration into the National Grid of Onshore and Offshore Wind Energy Generated in Germany, February 2005

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) DENA Grid Study II: Integration of Renewable Energy Sources in the German Power Supply from 2015-2020 with an Outlook to 2025

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Irish All-Island Grid Study conducted jointly by the Republic of Ireland Energy Department and the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment (Northern Ireland), January 2008

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) EirGrid Facilitation of Renewables Study

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Impact of Intermittency: How Wind Variability Could Change the Shape of the British and Irish Electricity Markets, July 2009

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) The Impact of Large Scale Wind Power Production on the Nordic Electricity System - Doctoral Dissertation by Hannele Holttinen of VTT, December 2004 - Also available on the publications page of VTT

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) The Costs and Impacts of Intermittency: An Assessment of the Evidence on the Costs and Impacts of Intermittent Generation on the British Electricity Network, March 2006

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) The Carbon Trust and DTI Renewables Network Impact Study - Annex 4: Intermittency Literature Survey and Roadmap, November 2003

Other Integration Studies

pdficon.gif (224 bytes) Lessons Learned from International Wind Integration Studies - Report Compiled for Australian Energy Market Operator, November 2011

Wind Integration Study Web Sites

Here are links to Wind Integration Study web sites. These studies are underway.

European Wind Integration Study (EWIS)

In addition, the Wind Systems Integration Program at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has a number of papers, reports, and presentations on wind integration. To see these, click here.


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